With U.S. decadent capitalism on the rampage, as manifested in the Goldwater campaign of 1964, and as coming to a climax in Lyndon Johnson’s raining bombs on Hanoi in 1965, there arose a new great mass anti-Vietnam War youth movement. The mass movements, of youth especially, in 1968 — be it in the so-called Cultural Revolution in China, or in Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia, or the Columbia occupation in New York — came to a climax in May 1968 in Paris; but still without a total philosophy. The Sino-Soviet dispute that had now become open Conflict, the war in Vietnam and in the Middle East, the 1968 of Czechoslovakia and of France: all showed at one and the same time the non-viability of capitalism on a world scale, the new subjective forces of revolution in motion abroad and at home, and the need for revolutionary philosophy as the missing link for social revolution. We had reached a turning point in both theory and practice, which Marx called “History and its process.” This volume therefore begins with the International Symposium on Socialist Humanism in 1964, followed by Dunayevskaya’s trip to Hong Kong and Japan, and culminating in the theoretical and practical preparation for Philosophy and Revolution.

  • Section I Turning Points

  • (1) Marx’s Humanism Today,

    by Raya Dunayevskaya, an essay written for the International Symposium, Socialist Humanism, edited by Erich Fromm, Doubleday, 1965. Contributors to the Symposium included Irving Fetscher, Germany; Karel Kosik, Ivan Svitak, Czechoslovakia; Bronislaw Baczko, Poland; Mihailo Markovic, Yugoslavia.

  • Section II The Trip to Hong Kong and Japan

    Ever since the 1960 snake dances of the youth which stopped Eisenhower’s trip to Japan, it became evident that a very new voice from the Orient had emerged. They had proceeded to publish a Japanese translation of the Humanist Essays of Marx. At the same time, there had been an independent analysis of Russia as a state-capitalist society by Tadayuki Tsushima, an original founder of the Communist Party in Japan. A letter from him, saying he had begun translating Marxism and Freedom, reached Dunayevskaya while she was in Africa. There was also contact with one section of the Zengakuren. Those who had broken with the Communist Party helped to arrange a tour of Japan by Dunayevskaya, which was preceded by a trip to Hong Kong.

  • (2) Hong Kong Interview: Alienation or Revolution,

    in News & Letters, June-July 1966. An interview Raya Dunayevskaya conducted while in Hong Kong with a Chinese refugee of the Left. This refugee was sufficiently impressed with the chapter on Mao in Marxism and Freedom that she translated it into Chinese. It was published by the Union Research Institute, Hong Kong, in China Monthly, No. 39, June 1, 1967.

  • (3) The Challenge of Mao Tse-tung,

    a chapter from Marxism and Freedom by Raya Dunayevskaya. Published in Chinese by the Union Research Institute, Hong Kong, in China Monthly, No. 39, June 1, 1967. (Microfilm also includes chapter in English.)

  • (6) Philosophical Essays,

    by Raya Dunayevskaya. Published in Japanese, 1967. Essays include: “Marx’s Humanism Today”; “The Theory of Alienation: Marx’s Debt to Hegel”; “Afro-Asian Revolutions.”

  • Section III Worldwide Expressions of Revolution Yet Still the Lack of Philosophy

  • (1) State-Capitalism and Marx’s Humanism, or Philosophy and Revolution,

    by Raya Dunayevskaya, 1967; a News & Letters pamphlet. An essay originally written as a contribution to a discussion on state-capitalism with a Japanese Marxist, Tadayuki Tsushima. Both articles, by Dunayevskaya and Tsushima, were first published in a special issue of News & Letters, Dec. 1966. This pamphlet includes as Appendix Dunayevskaya’s 1946 “Analysis of Rosa Luxemburg’s Accumulation of Capital” (see Vol. I, Sec. IV).

  • (2) The Arab-Israeli Collision, The World Powers and the Struggle for the Minds of Men,

    a Political-Philosophic Letter by Raya Dunayevskaya, June 1967. (Included on the microfilm are all the analyses of that world crisis spot, entitled War, Peace or Revolution: Shifting alliances in the Middle East, a series of analyses by Raya Dunayevskaya from the 1967 Six-Day War to the 1980 Israeli annexation of East Jerusalem.)

  • (3) Lenin on Hegel’s Science of Logic: Notes on a Series of Lectures,

    for “Materialist Friends of the Hegelian Dialectic,” by Raya Dunayevskaya, Dec. 14, 1967. A series of five lectures tracing Lenin’s commentary on Hegel’s Science of Logic. (These lectures were republished as part of the News and Letters pamphlet Dialectics of Liberation in 1974.)

  • (4) Mao’s China and the “Proletarian Cultural Revolution,”

    by Raya Dunayevskaya, Dec. 31, 1967, written for New Politics, Spring 1968 and reprinted by News and Letters. (This essay appears as the final chapter in the 1971 edition of Marxism and Freedom, “Cultural Revolution or Maoist Reaction.” Microfilm version is as reprinted in The Revolution is Dead, Long Live the Revolution, by the 70s Group, Hong Kong, 1976.)

  • (5) France, Spring, 1968: Masses in Motion, Ideas in Free Flow,

    By Eugene Walker, Fall 1968; a News & Letters Youth pamphlet. An eyewitness critical report on the near-revolution in France, May-June 1968.

  • (6) Czechoslovakia: Revolution and Counter-Revolution,

    Oct. 1963; published jointly by News and Letters Committees and the Marxist-Humanist Group, Glasgow, Scotland. An analysis of the events in Czechoslovakia 1963 including eyewitness report by X, a Czechoslovak; report by Ivan Svitak; editorial statement from News & Letters; Foreword by Raya Dunayevskaya and Harry McShane.

  • Section IV Transition Point: Theses and Reports